For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, “BUT THE RIGHTEOUS man SHALL LIVE BY FAITH.”
Thursday, January 15, 2015
TRANSLATION AND EXEGESIS OF MARK 13 (1/15/2015 update)
Thomas Martin Salazar (Personal Translation and
notes 1/15/2015 update)
1. And while he was departing
from the temple, one of his disciples says to him, teacher, "Behold! What
wonderful stones and what wonderful of buildings. 2. And Jesus says to him,
"do you see these great buildings? Not one stone will remain upon a stone
that will not be torn down."
3. And while sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite of
the temple, Peter and Jacob and John and Andrew asked him privately, 4. “Tell
us when will these things be, and what is the sign when all these things are
going to be fulfilled?”
5. Now Jesus began to say to them,
"watch out that no one deceives you 6. Many will come in my name, saying that, ‘I
am’ and they will deceive many. 7. And when you hear about the conflicts
and rumors of conflicts, do not be alarmed: it must take place,”
7b. “but [the other side of the
issue]: it is not yet the end.”
This sub-section of verses shows
that there will be false messiahs/christs and they will deceive many. The
disciples are commanded to watch out or be aware of these false messiahs. Also,
this section shows that the conflicts should not be the disciples' focus. The
word "ἀλλʼ", particularly in this case, is
not just contrasting the previous statement but the entirety of the previous
clauses. For example in BDAG: "when whole clauses are compared, ἀλλά can indicate a transition to some[thing]
different or contrasted: the other side
of a matter or issue,but, yet.δεῖγὰργενέσθαι, ἀλλʼοὔπωἐστὶντὸτέλος Mt
24:6, cp. Lk 21:9."(bold original) This
strong transition now shows that the previous statements are being contrasted.
The fact is that Jesus is trying to get his disciples to look beyond the
present situation of conflicts, He will restate with more emphasis in vs 8,
because the reality is that these events are not the end.
8. “For racial group will rise up
against racial group and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in
many places. There will be famines. These things are the beginning of the birth
Moreover, the "γὰρ" adds a sense of intensity to the
previous statements in verse 5-7. It intensifies the previous statements by
clarifying and specifying the types of conflicts. The "γὰρ" at the beginning of vs 8 is
directly linked as an explanation that in a sense re-states and adds specifics
to vs. 5-7. This is because "γὰρ" is an
explanatory conjunction. An explanatory conjunction is "used to introduce
an explanation of a previously mentioned sentential element."
This added intensity is to take the shift from the conflicts and wars as noted
in the "ἀλλʼ" above and focuses on what he
will begin to explain in vs 9, because
the birth pains and the false messiah/christ are just the begenning. R. T. France explains, "The γάρ
indicates that these clauses are further amplification of the warning about
wars in v. 7, and the future tenses have the same effect as the preceding δεῖ: these
things are bound to go on happening."In other words, Jesus is trying to
shift those who are hearing his teaching and reading it today away from trying
to know about the end so they can transition to more specific commands, which
appear later in the passage about witnessing and taking care of one another.
is also important to notice that these passages mention general things like
conflicts and divisions between races, nations and kingdoms, along with all the
earthquakes, and famines all of kind, which have been happening throughout
human history. These general issues, are as Jesus states, "not yet the
end, but instead "These things are the beginning of the birth pains."
This introductory section of the Olivet discourse is not meant to be
apocalyptic, but a call to focus on the important issues, which was not the
wonderfulness of the Herodian temple.
Finally, this introductory section focuses on a new beginning for his
disciples, which will be explained in the next section.
9. “Now, watch out for yourselves,
[for] they will deliver you to the Sanhedrins and in the Synagogues you will be
beaten. And before the ruler
and king you will stand for my sake as a
testimony against them. 10. And it
is necessary to proclaim the Gospel to all nations. 11. And when they arrest
you and hand you over, do not be anxious beforehand about what you are to say,
but say whatever is given to you in that hour. For it is not you who are
speaking, but the Holy Spirit [speaking through you]. 12. And brother will deliver
brother to death, and a father [will
betray his] child, and children will rise up in rebellion against parents. And
they will have them put to death 13. And you will be hated by all, because of
my name, but the one who after enduring to the end, will be saved.”
One needs to realize that this
section is full of Old Testament Septuagint allusions and echoes from Micah. It starts off in vs. 9 with an echo to Micah
1:2 which states, "Ἀκούσατε,λαοί, λόγους, καὶπροσεχέτωἡγῆκαὶπάντεςοἱἐναὐτῇ, καὶἔσταικύριοςἐνὑμῖνεἰςμαρτύριον, Κύριοςἐξοἴκουἁγίουαὐτοῦ,"
which is translated, "Listen people [to] words! Earth pay close attention,
and everyone in it, and the Lord shall be a testimony against you,
the Lord from His holy house." This is interesting because God seems to be
talking about a specific testimony (εἰςμαρτύριον)
to the world. This would thus intensify the need for there to be a proclamation
to all the nations as mentioned in Mark 13:10 because God meant for the entire
world to hear his message.
Furthermore, Mark 13:9 uses the word "συναγωγὰς" which since it is plural is
understood as referring to "councils in general, whether Jewish or
This makes sense since Jesus is warning his disciples and future readers about
persecution, and about being brought before rulers and kings. This is again
portraying the prophetic call that these men will become against the world.
Mark 13:12 also makes an allusion back
to Micah 7:6 which states, "διότιυἱὸςἀτιμάζειπατέρα, θυγάτηρἐπαναστήσεταιἐπὶτὴνμητέρααὐτῆς, νύμφηἐπὶτὴνπενθερὰναὐτῆς, ἐχθροὶἀνδρὸςπάντεςοἱἄνδρεςοἱἐντῷοἴκῳαὐτοῦ.When
translated, this state's "Because a son dishonors a father, a daughter
shall rise up against
her mother, a wife against her mother-in-law; all the enemies of a man [are] the men in his
house." Clearly the similarities
are evident with the daughter-in-law and daughter rising up against their
mother and mother-in-laws and sons dishonoring their fathers, when Jesus
states, "and children will rise up in rebellion against parents."
Moreover, the word for enemies also conveys the idea of hatred or hostility; thus
paralleling Jesus' statement that "you will be hated by all." In summary, Jesus is trying to prepare
them for the reality that they will be hated or have hostility towards them not
just from rulers but from their own families.
With this persecution in mind, it is
important to understand that the focus of this section is also linked to a
specific command to "watch out for yourselves." This is because Jesus
knew they would be beaten and would have to endure much persecution and
tribulations, while fulfilling the call on their lives. This command is even more specific than the
first one because of the reflexive pronoun "ἑαυτούς
". R.T. Francies explains that "The direct object here, ἑαυτούς,
makes the warning more personal: they themselves are in danger. The warning is
not so that they should try to escape persecution, but to prepare them to endure
In the end, Jesus was still trying to prepare his disciples for their part in
Salvation's history, so that they can endure until the end of their race. James Edwards explains that the
"Disciples are again reminded that faithfulness does not consist in
forecasting the future and determining preemptive responses, but rather in
trusting that God will give them grace to complete their service in His name,
and indeed will even speak through them in their deepest need." 
Finally, it is important to note the
use of the phrase "εἰςτέλος" or to
the end. This end is the goal of endurance; it is the disciples' faith in the
future salvation over the present temporal salvation of a Second Temple Jewish
messiah. Jesus in this passage is directly challenging the idea of what
traditional Second Temple Jews would view as Jewish salvation. Second Temple Messianism
would look for a leader like David to overthrow the Roman's rule and reign over
Israel. This would be their view of salvation, just as Moses brought Yahweh's
salvation temporally and physically from Egypt. Instead, Jesus is saying not
only must He die but those following Him will have to endure to reach the end
goal which includes salvation. That is a spiritual salvation as opposed to a
physical temporal salvation. Thus, it is
important to realize that this is not a passage about eschatology but about
sanctification. According to R.T. Frances, "This last sentence of the section is
therefore not so much a prediction about the ‘end’ (and thus does not directly
contribute to answering the disciples’ question) as it is a call to endurance
and the assurance that those who suffer for Jesus will not be ultimately the
14. “But when you are seeing the abomination that causes desolation [Dan
11:31//12:11] having stood where he must not be let the reader
understand! Then those in Judea must escape to the mountains. 15. The one who
is on the housetop must not go down or go to pick up anything from his house.
16. And the one who is in the field must not turn back to pick up his
coat. 17. Woe to those who have [a baby]
in their womb and those who are nursing babies in those days. 18. But pray that
it may not happen during bad weather, 19.
For those days will be [time of] tribulation such as has not happened
since the beginning of creation which God created until now and never will
happen again. 20. And unless the Lord shortened the days, no flesh would be
saved, but for the sake of the chosen, which He chose, he shortened the days.”
When reading verse 14 and this
section, it is important to notice that Mark uses the word " ἴδητε",
which conveys the idea of perceiving by sight or with one's eyes. The key word
here is "perceive". This is Mark in a sense calling those who are
listening and reading this next section to watch out. The word " ἴδητε"
whose root is " εἶδον" semantically conveys this idea
of "being aware of someth[ing] through sensitivity"...or "to
take special not[ice] of someth[ing]" or by even experience of an event. For
instance, when Jesus states, "“Truly,
truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God”
(NASB, John 3:3). Notice the "see" here means that one will not enter
or experience the kingdom of God, not just the lack of seeing it. This concept
is also conveyed when Mark uses the aorist active subjunctive, "ἴδητε
" which convey this perfective aspect and a sense of experience in a
moment in time, which is aided by the temporal adverb "when". Thus, the context expresses the idea that
when one notices or experiences this desolation, then one needs to flee. It is
a form of a request, but in the form of a warning.
The second half of the section fits as
a more specific warning about the wars and conflicts discussed in the previous
section (vs7), where it states, "And when you hear about the conflicts and
rumors of conflicts, do not be alarmed: it must take place, but [the other side
of the issue]: it is not yet the end."
Meanwhile, vs.14 states, "But when you see the abomination of desolation having stood where he must not be let the
reader understands!" Notice both of
these verses start with temporal adverbial phrase "ὅτανδὲ." The
contrast is clear, one section basically implies not to worry about the end or
the rumors and news of the conflicts, but when one perceive the abomination
that causes desolation then they need to run. Moreover, Mark or Jesus call, for
the reader to understand, adds an emphasis to this section that is not present
in the first half of the warnings.
Now it has been debated on who the
reader is and how one is supposed to interpret who or what the abomination is
that causes desolation. Matthew states in 24:15, "ὍτανοὖνἴδητετὸβδέλυγματῆςἐρημώσεωςτὸῥηθὲνδιὰΔανιὴλτοῦπροφήτουἑστὸςἐντόπῳἁγίῳ, ὁἀναγινώσκωννοείτω," which is translated, "Therefore, when you
are seeing the abomination that causes Desolation, which after being spoken
through Daniel the prophet having stood
in the Holy place. Let the one reading [in public worship] understand."
Matthew adds several key factors. First, that Jesus or Mark wants the readers
to go back and read Daniel before teaching this section. Second, that the place
where the abomination will be standing will be a holy place.
Meanwhile, Luke states in 21:20 "ὍτανδὲἴδητεκυκλουμένηνὑπὸστρατοπέδωνἸερουσαλήμ, τότεγνῶτεὅτιἤγγικενἡἐρήμωσιςαὐτῆς. " which is translated, "but
when you are seeing Jerusalem being surrounded by armies then recognize that
her desolation draws near." Thus it
seems that the desolation at least according to Luke would be referring to the
Roman armies. Therefore, it makes sense that one should understand Mark and Matthew
as saying that the abomination that causes desolation, refers to the Roman army
and Caesar who cause this destruction.
Many believers in Jerusalem were saved because this warning or a teaching
like this one that was taught by the church this is known because of Church
historian Eusebius. Who states,
But the people of the church in
Jerusalem had been commanded by a revelation, vouchsafed to approved men there
before the war, to leave the city and to dwell in a certain town of Perea
called Pella. And when those that believed in Christ had come thither from
Jerusalem, then, as if the royal city of the Jews and the whole land of Judea
were entirely destitute of holy men, the judgment of God at length overtook
those who had committed such outrages against Christ and his apostles, and
totally destroyed that generation of impious men.
other words, the church had a revelation, one that probably originated from
both Mark and Matthew's gospels.
21. “And then if anyone says
to you, ‘behold, here is the Christ,’ or ‘behold,’ there do not believe [him] 22.
for a false Christ and false prophets will appear, and they will produce signs
and wonders, in order to lead astray, if possible the chosen. 23. But you watch out. I have told you
Ultimately, this section is a special
warning to His chosen - the elect members of the people of God. In essence, Jesus
is saying that even though there will be persecution and families will turn on each
other, Jesus through his providence warned them about the future destruction
and gives to those who heed the warning a temporal salvation from that
destruction. Moreover, this conveys why it was important not to follow any
others who claimed to be Christ because they would be the rebels who tried to
fit their Davidic messianic presupposition of what a Christ should be like. And
it is those who followed these false messiahs who were destroyed by the Roman
legions. Hence, this entire section is
an inclusio about false messiahs and served the purpose of changing the
disciples' and the future people of God's (who will listen to the reader's
teaching) understanding the concept of the Messiah for the purpose of
understanding their individual elections as participants in God's salvation
24. “but in those days after
the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light [Isa 13:10]. 25.
and the stars will be falling from heaven. And the powers that are in heavens
will be shaken [Isa 34:4] 26. Then they will see the son of Man arriving
on the clouds [Dan 7:13] with power and glory. 27. And then he will send
out the messengers and will gather together his chosen from the four winds-from
the end of the earth to the end of heaven.”
Moreover, Mark uses the conjunction "Ἀλλὰ"
which again is a strong adversative to show that he is changing the focus of
the subject. This is a specific shift from the Jewish conflicts and wars to
focusing on God's Kingdom and Christ, the true messiah's return.
Jesus again is contrasting the preconceived idea of the Jewish Davidic messiah
and his kingdom. Instead of an earthly kingdom, it is an eternal kingdom that
transcends this temporal world. This is a fulfillment of Daniel's prophesy
13. I observed during a night
vision; “Behold, upon the clouds of heaven as the son of man, and he appeared
(proclaimed) as the ancient of days having been placed (there) was presented to
him. Now royal authority and honor were granted to him, and all the nations of
the land, people groups. 14. And all glory was serving him, and his
(royal) authority is an everlasting authority, which shall never be removed,
and his monarchy, which shall never be destroyed. (Personal translation)
other words, race and nationality does not matter anymore. Rather, God is
sending out his angles to all the world to retrieve the chosen people, Jew and Gentile
alike. Because when the end does happen the angels will gather the people of
God. Thus, R.T. Frances explains this concept well: " From
now on it will not be the national shrine which will be the focus of the people
of God, but the Son of Man to whom has now been given, as Dn. 7:14 predicted,
an everlasting and universal dominion which embraces all nations and languages." That is a radical idea especially when Jewish
theology looked for a Jewish messiah that would liberate its nation from all
foreign power and rule the land. Meanwhile, Jesus is saying that nationality no
longer matters. Therefore, He is continuing the idea of a new eschatological
understanding of the true messiah.
28. Now learn the parable from the fig tree: when
its branch has already become tender and sprouts its leaves. You know that
summer is near. 29. Thus also you, when you see these things happening, be very
certain that he is near, at the gates. 30. Amen I say to you: this
generation will not pass away, until all these things take place. 31. The heaven and the earth will pass
away, but my words shall not pass away.
the parable of the fig tree gives another reason for why the disciples and the
people of God should be alert. Jesus is imploring that one should not be like
the fig tree that did not have any fruit, but rather, one should be prepared
for Christ's return because like the fig tree on the road to Jerusalem one does
not know when He will appear. It is important to notice how verse 29 states,
"When you are seeing these things happening", referring back most
likely to verse 14 and verse 7 that include two statements about hearing and
seeing. He compares the signs to a fig tree in the summer whose leaves become
green right before the fruit becomes available as a sign that the fruit is
ready. The conflicts, the false messiah and the abomination that causes
desolation - all three of these are signs of the destruction of the temple,
just as a leafy fig tree in the summer is a sign of fruit.
32. But regarding that day or
hour, no one knows, not even the angels in Heaven, nor the Son, except the Father.
33. Watch out; be alert for you do not know when the time is. 34.
It is like a human being away on a journey; he departed from his house, and
gave authority to his slaves, to each his work, he also gave an order to the
doorkeeper to stay alert. 35. So be on alert, for you do not know when
the Lord of the house will return. Whether in the evening, at midnight or when
the rooster crows, or in early in the morning, 36. in case he should arrive
suddenly and find you asleep. 37. What I say to you I say to all:
Jesus again makes a shift in the
topic, but this time He uses the post positive conjunction "δὲ " instead of "Ἀλλὰ ". This shows Jesus shifting his argument away
from how does one know when the end will be to when his return will be. After
this shift, Jesus starts right back in vs 33 with two specific commands with
the imperatival verbs "Βλέπετε, ἀγρυπνεῖτε" which is, "watch out! Be
alert!", because no one knows when Christ will return. The back to back
use of these verbs adds emphasis to Christ's statement, which is not present in
the previous statements - as if to say that the disciples need to pay even
While this passage is about the parousia, that is only a cursory view of what
Jesus is saying to his disciples. Jesus uses a parable of a man who is about to
go on a journey and he leaves his "δοῦλος" in charge. The passage use of "δοῦλος"
conveys a context that goes beyond slave but more as "someone who is
solely committed to another" because the slave is bound by duty to give "total
Jesus is comparing himself to the master and he is leaving his "δοῦλος"
behind to watch over his house. In other words, the disciples are the "δοῦλος." Jesus is commanding them with emphasis to
watch out and be alert for His return - not by sitting around looking for him,
but by faithfully running His home. Thisa passage is about how to be alert and
wait on the Lord by being a faithful "δοῦλος."
In conclusion, Mark 13:1-37 is not
about knowing when the eschatological end times are to occur. Instead, Jesus
called them to "watch out" for the false messiahs (MK 13:5), for one
another (MK 13:9) and because he specifically warned them to (MK 13:23). This
section (13:5-6, 21-23) is also contained in an inclusio about being deceived
by a false messiah . Inside this inclusio, there were also two important
temporal clauses going from general in 13:7-8 "ὅτανδὲἀκούσητε",
which deals with conflicts to a more
specific section in 13:14-20 "Ὅτανδὲἴδητε" about the abomination of
desolation. These are specific warning
about the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple. Moreover, Jesus' argument
goes towards changing the common second temple perception of what type of
Messiah he was, and what type of kingdom he was inheriting (13:24-27). This
along with the idea of the destruction of the temple would have been a radical
concept for most second temple Jews who found their identity in their
nationality and the temple which housed the presence of God. That said, Jesus was seeking to help his
disciples see beyond their awe of the temple and Jerusalem because the worldly
city and building are not his kingdom. Finally, Jesus ends his argument with a
parable and a call to stewards while He is away.
ἴδε- conveys an idea that one is commanding or
emphatically saying "Look!" or "Behold" or "Take
notice!," so as to "introduce" or "draw attention" to
something. William Arndt et al., A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament
and Other Early Christian Literature (3rd ed.; Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 2000), 466.
context here conveys a sense of emotional outburst. This same outburst of
emotion can be seen also in 1 John 3:1. Thus the word, "ποταποὶ" is best translated as "how
wonderful" or "how glorious." William Arndt et al., A
Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature
(3rd ed.; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 856.
Indicative verb which means
"see" or "to gaze at". The main idea behind these two uses
of the verb is that Mark is not saying just to see with their eyes but that
Jesus is trying to draw the disciples' attention to think about what he is
about to say. This seems logical with
its context and the fact that Mark uses an indicative verb that Jesus is trying
to "direct" their "attention" to more than just the stones
but to the words he is about to say. William Arndt et al., A Greek-English
Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (3rd ed.;
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 179.
It must be noted that Matthew
changes the phrase "βλέπεις ταύτας τὰς
μεγάλας οἰκοδομάς" to
"οὐβλέπετεταῦταπάντα": "do you not see all
these." This is interesting because in Mark, "βλέπετε" conveys the idea to "watch
out" or to "take care"- again back to the idea of directing
one's attention towards more than just the visual, but the content behind what
Jesus is saying.
 The word "μεγάλας" (great) is used in this passage
because it is Herod the Great's Temple; Jesus in a way, might have said this as
mocking reference to Herod.
Unless otherwise noted all the Greek New Testament passages are from the NA27. Eberhard
Nestle et al., The Greek New Testament
(27th ed.; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993), 133.
possibly translated "while he departed."
 A genitive
absolute, functioning adverbially, and since it is a present passive participle,
conveys imperfective aspect.
indicative, third person singular, thus only one of the disciples asked Jesus -
"he(one of disciples probably Peter)
asked him (Jesus) privately"
conjunction Wallace, Daniel B., and Daniel B. Wallace. The Basics of
New Testament Syntax An Intermediate Greek Grammar. (Grand Rapids, MI:
Zondervan Pub. House, 2000.) 299.
 "λέγειν " is a complementary infinitive.
 "βλέπετε" is the first of several imperatival
phrases conveying specific commands to watch out, throughout this section (MK
13:5, 9, 23, 33). Each time "βλέπετε" is used it is a specific command to watch out. For
out for false messiah/christs.
out for yourselves (the reflexive pronoun makes it even more personal).
Another personal call to see/perceive/experience to the church a subsection to
Watch out for false messiah, because Jesus told them everything beforehand.
(ends inclusio with 13:5)
out, be alert, to actively live for God because no one knows the time of His
return. This is the contrast of the previous inclusio, because instead of
watching out for a false messiah, they are called to be alert for His (Christ)
specific commands from imperatival verbs in this section include ἀγρυπνεῖτε (MK 13:33) and γρηγορεῖτε (MK13:35, 37).
Mark 13:5-6 with its use of "βλέπετε" and the concept of the "I
Am" creates the beginning of an inclusio between Mark 13:23.
Continuative conjunction Wallace, The
Contrastive /Adversative conjunction. Wallace, The Basics, 297.
 The article implies this is a specific
 "Participle of (or introducing)
direct speech" Albert L. Lukaszewski, The Lexham Syntactic Greek New
Testament Glossary (Lexham Press, 2007).
 Conflict, or wars or battles.
William Arndt et al., A Greek-English
Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (3rd ed.;
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 45.
γὰρ-adds a sense of intensity and it is
functioning as an "explanatory conjunction." Thus, it begins an
explanation of the previous section. Albert L. Lukaszewski and Mark Dubis, The Lexham Syntactic Greek New Testament:
Expansions and Annotations ( (Logos Bible Software, 2009)), Mk 13:8.
 Or contractions.
Albert L. Lukaszewski, The Lexham
Syntactic Greek New Testament Glossary ( Lexham Press, 2007).
 R. T.
France, The Gospel of Mark: A Commentary
on the Greek Text (, New International Greek Testament Commentary Grand
Rapids, MI; Carlisle: W.B. Eerdmans; Paternoster Press, 2002), 509-10.
 post positive, Transitional conjunction Wallace,
The Basics, 299.
conjunction Wallace, The Basics, 296.
beating is a form of official corporal punishment. France, The Gospel of Mark, 515.
conjunction Wallace, The Basics, 296.
Betray or to hand over.
Danker, F. W. "Double-Entendre in Mark XIII 9."Novum Testamentum(1968): 162-163.
Vocative case, thus the people are the ones being addressed David Alan Black. Learn
to read New Testament Greek. (Nashville, Tenn: Broadman & Holman
Publishers, 2009.) 27.
 (1.) In
this context, God is talking through His prophet. (2.) The word " λόγους " is accusative and plural. And
according to BDAG "δ. the pl. (οἱ) λόγοι is used, on the one hand, of words
uttered on various occasions, of speeches or instruction given here and there
by humans or transcendent beings,"
like "οἱδέκαλόγοιthe ten commandments"; and more specifically in the
accusative case, "πᾶςὅστιςἀκούειμουτοὺςλόγουςτούτουςMt 7:24" which
is where Jesus states, "Therefore, everyone who hears these words of
Henry Barclay Swete, The Old Testament in
Greek: According to the Septuagint (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
Press, 1909), Mic 1:2.
 Translated "ἐν" as against. This is because the NET
Septuagint also translated "ἐν" as
against, but admittedly the
Greek seems to imply "among" instead. That said the Hebrew Old
Testament passage also uses the word against. Thus it is possible that the
Septuagint use of "ἐν"
is just a very rare use.
 Now F. W. Danker thinks that verse 10 is
"possibly" an allusion to Micah 4:2 which states, "And many
nations shall come and say: 'Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord and
to the house of the God of Iakob, and they will show us his way, and we will
walk in his paths.' because out of Sion shall go forth the law, and a word of
the Lord from Ierousalem"(NET Septuagint, Micah 4:2). Danker,
 Evans, Craig A. Mark 8:27-16:20.
(WBC Vol 34B, Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001) 309.
Septuaginta: With Morphology
(electronic ed.; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1979), Mic 7:6.
conveys the idea that the daughters will "become
active in forceful resistance or expression of hostility,rise
up, rise in rebellion"
(bold original). BDAG, 359.
is a word that means personal enemy or hostiles.
According to R. T. Frances Note 58 on page 518. "N. T.
Wright, Victory, 347–48, sees this as
‘a classic example of an entire passage [Mi. 7:2–10] being evoked by a single
reference’. The Targum Jonathan version
of Mi. 7 provides even closer links with this passage, particularly a reference
specifically to brother giving up brother to death: see L. Hartman, Prophecy, 168–69" [bold added] Frances, The Gospel of Mark, 518n.5).
France, The Gospel of Mark, 514.
James R. Edwards, The Gospel According to
Mark ( The Pillar New Testament Commentary Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester,
England: Eerdmans; Apollos, 2002), 393.
 R. T.
Frances understands " εἰς τέλος" as forever which
contextually can be conveyed for example John 13:1d which states, "He
loved them to the end." And of course Jesus' love here does not have an
end rather it is eternal/forever. It does not seem to fit the context of Mark
13:13 though. Frances, The Gospel of Mark,519.
France, The Gospel of Mark: , 519.
post positive conjunction is paired to the temporal "ὅταν" as in vs 7, but
should be translated differently because it sees that Jesus is contrasting the
 "εἶδον functions as the aor. form of ὁράω"
is a causal genitive, "abomination that causes
Participial that is masculine and singular and could convey that the
"Abomination of desolation" is a specific male person. Brooks, James
A. Vol. 23, Mark. (NAC. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers,
1991)212-213. That said, R.T. Frances takes it as an event, the time when the
Romans started to squash the Jewish rebellion, which hit the "climax in
A.D. 70." Frances, The Gospel of
 Personal and eschatological relationship
used to refer to the people of God. The most eschatological theologically
charged term in this section possibly.
one reading in public worship.
279-80, & 719.
 Passive aorist participle which conveys
an action that happened after the fact. Campbell, Constantine R. Basics
of Verbal Aspect in Biblical Greek. (Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan, 2008.)94.
Eusebius of Caesaria, "The Church History of Eusebius", trans. Arthur
Cushman McGiffert, in , vol. 1, Eusebius:
Church History, Life of Constantine the Great, and Oration in Praise of
Constantine ( ed. Philip Schaff and Henry Wace;, A Select Library of the
Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second SeriesNew York:
Christian Literature Company, 1890), 138. From Eusebius, Church History, 3.5.3 for any other translations.
This conjunction "alerts us to a new stage of fulfillment,"
because Jesus starting to speak about what will happen after the "θλῖψιν"
the tribulation or persecution Frances, The
Gospel of Mark,530.
Possibly means "persecution".
France, The Gospel of Mark:, 531-32.
France, The Gospel of Mark, 531.
passage can be understood as
shift to parousia
B.13:33 Exhortation to be watchful and alert.
C.13:34 parable explain verse 33.
again a call to be on alert.
positive conjunction is transitioning again to a new topic.
Introduces the parable which explains the previous "exhortation to